Qinghai animal husbandry phase change materials have the advantages of high thermal efficiency, high storage density, and almost constant temperature when storing or releasing energy. Interview survey on the degree of mechanization
Abstract: Agricultural Mechanization is the foundation of agricultural modernization, and animal husbandry mechanization is an important part of agricultural mechanization. Qinghai Province is one of the five major pastoral areas in China, and animal husbandry accounts for half of the entire agricultural and animal husbandry economy. In recent years, Qinghai Province has taken the development of animal husbandry in agricultural areas as the "highlight" of agricultural and rural economic development and a long-term source of increasing farmers' income. It has increased investment, expanded scale, and improved standards. The development momentum of animal husbandry production in agricultural areas is strong. While the 4 raw materials of animal husbandry in agricultural areas attract attention and investment from all parties, their mechanization level should not become a weakness. Recently, I went to a local scale farm to find out
1. Feeding and milking mechanization saves labor and materials
a TMR feeding car can handle the cows in the whole farm. "Although this big guy is a little cumbersome, he works more carefully than people." Xie Lijie, deputy head of Jinnong dairy cattle breeding base in Datong County, Qinghai Province, said, "this feeding car imported from Ireland can not only stir and crush, but also have the functions of weighing and accurately setting the feeding amount, which not only greatly saves manpower, but also solves the problem of inaccurate manual feeding."
a TMR cow full mixed ration mixer with the same name works with the TMR feeding vehicle. This machine has four feeding barrels, which can meet the feeding needs of cows at different stages. Xie Lijie said, "the combination of these two machines, first, saves manpower, and only needs two people to complete the whole process from batching to feeding; second, it can use the feeding formula suitable for the actual cattle farm, saving the cost of raw materials."
it is understood that the mechanization of feeding and milking is the key to the mechanization of cow breeding
entering the modern milking hall, although the area is small, the neat milking equipment really brightens people's eyes. Xie Lijie told that at present, the milk of more than 130 cows in the lactation period of the whole farm must enter the refrigerator through the milking hall every day. On average, it takes about 4 minutes to finish milking a cow, which can accommodate 24 cows at a time
in addition to improving the efficiency of milking, modern milking equipment can also display the number of each cow and the milk yield of a single cow through the intelligent monitoring system, and transmit the data to the intelligent management platform for summary and analysis. Xie Lijie said, "on the intelligent platform, we can see the daily milk production of more than 130 cows, and of course, the annual milk production of a certain cow. In addition, we can also analyze the daily milk production data of each cow, so as to monitor whether its milk production is normal."
however, Xie Lijie also has a headache. The workers in the milking hall are very skilled in the operation of mechanized equipment, but not everyone can cope with the whole set of intelligent system platform. Xie Lijie opened the intelligent management system. When accessing the relevant data of cows, some data were not displayed. Xie Lijie said, "this is the problem. These data include not only milk production, but also exercise and reproduction. The records of these data are closely related to the installation of the cowshed and the sensors worn by the cows. Once there is a problem with the sensors, professional people are needed to solve it, and now there is no such talent in the cattle farm."
2. There is still a lack of efficient equipment in the fecal sewage treatment link
"an average cow produces at least 8 tons of fecal sewage a year, and the whole farm has more than 1700 cows. A simple calculation can calculate that the total fecal sewage of the farm can reach more than 13000 tons a year, and then the average is about 40 tons a day." Lizhikui, the head of beef cattle farm of Sanjiang Yili agricultural Co., Ltd. in Huangyuan County, Qinghai Province, who has many years of breeding experience, told, "the farm cleans up fecal dirt at least once a day, including houses with high cost and beef cattle activity places, which requires a lot of manpower and time."
it is understood that a few years ago, Sanjiang Yili beef cattle farm once introduced a set of automatic fecal removal equipment. Due to poor fecal removal effect and high damage rate of cattle to the equipment, the equipment was eliminated within a few years and turned into a pile of scrap iron. Lizhikui said, "to put it bluntly, it's not applicable, and the large loss leads to high maintenance costs, so it's not the best choice for enterprises. Now the farm still adopts the method of forklift and manual defecation, so it takes time and effort."
there is little difference between Sanjiang Yili beef cattle farm and Jinnong dairy cattle breeding base. The collection of fecal sewage is also a forklift plus manual method. The only difference is that Sanjiang Yili ferments the collected fecal sewage intensively and uses it to produce and process organic fertilizer, while Jinnong dairy cattle breeding base directly returns it to the field after fermentation. The survey found that from the perspective of fecal sewage collection, the mechanization degree of most beef cattle and dairy farms in Qinghai Province is generally low
the fecal sewage treatment links of large-scale farms mainly include fecal sewage collection, biogas slurry separation, fermentation, biological fertilizer processing, etc. at present, the mechanization degree of each link is not ideal according to the current situation of large-scale farms in Qinghai Province. Xuzhenlin, a researcher at Qinghai agricultural machinery promotion station, said bluntly: "one of the main reasons for the low degree of mechanization is that many domestic machines have great shortcomings in stability, which not only costs high, but also fails to achieve the desired effect."
from the aspects of biogas slurry separation, fermentation, biological fertilizer processing and so on, the requirements for machinery and equipment are higher, and the biggest problem at present is that there are few complete sets of machinery and equipment in the whole process in China, and most of them rely on Japan's imports. Xu Zhenlin said, "for example, in the front and back end of the fecal sewage treatment, there is no problem with the fecal sewage collection power machinery, organic fertilizer processing machinery, and the key intermediate links, such as solid-liquid separation and fermentation, have broken the chain."
for Li Zhikui, only by completely solving the problem of manure collection machinery in the farm can we greatly reduce human investment, improve efficiency and reduce costs
3. Agricultural machinery subsidies and promotion still need to be increased.
in Xie Lijie's eyes, a TMR feeding car has solved the feeding problem of the whole cow, but Li Zhikui doesn't think so. Sanjiang Yili beef cattle farm also has a TMR feeding vehicle. Although it is not as advanced as Jinnong dairy cattle breeding base, it will not affect the feeding efficiency. Li Zhikui's idea is that all the cattle in the field only rely on this feeding car. Once the feeding car goes wrong, all the cattle will have to be hungry, and there should be a spare one
for enterprises, input is cost. The TMR feeding car in Li Zhikui's hand was purchased in 2013, with a total price of more than 400000 yuan, including power machinery. Excluding nearly 60000 yuan of agricultural machinery subsidies, the enterprise paid another 340000 yuan. Li Zhikui said, "if you buy another one exactly the same, the current price may be higher. Although agricultural machinery subsidies can help enterprises reduce some burdens, they cannot solve the fundamental problem."
from the perspective of agricultural machinery subsidies, it is proposed in the "2017 implementation plan of agricultural machinery purchase subsidies in Qinghai Province" that animal husbandry machinery with clear types of agricultural machinery purchase subsidies include feed (grass) processing machinery and equipment, animal product collection and processing machinery and equipment, and waste treatment equipment, including 14 items, such as feed crushers, feed mixers, feed mixers, milkers, refrigerated cans, milk storage cans, solid-liquid separators. It basically covers the whole breeding process. At the same time, open subsidies are given to machines and tools supporting green development, such as the resource utilization of livestock and poultry manure
Wang Jianyuan, director of the Bureau of agricultural machinery to ensure the flow of agricultural machinery in Qinghai Provincial Department of agriculture and animal husbandry, said: "from the perspective of the purchase subsidies for agricultural machinery in animal husbandry in 2016 alone, the subsidies for single farmers in the province accounted for a high proportion, while the subsidies for agricultural enterprises, agricultural machinery professional cooperation organizations, etc. were relatively low. From the perspective of the purchase subsidies for animal husbandry in recent years, the subsidized machines and tools were concentrated in the front end of the breeding link to feed (forage) In terms of feed processing, it has greatly promoted the mechanization level of feed (grass) processing, but the intermediate feeding link is obviously insufficient. "
from the perspective of animal husbandry machinery promotion, Zhaodelin, head of Qinghai agricultural machinery promotion station, said: "Combined with the current situation of animal husbandry development in Qinghai, decentralized breeding still accounts for a large proportion. Small and medium-sized farmers have a high demand for a single mechanical equipment, which is one of the priorities of our promotion. However, some large-scale farms have a high demand for equipment, domestic equipment has many shortcomings, and the cost of systematic complete sets of equipment abroad is high, which is a difficulty in promotion."
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